10 Best Password Managers in 2020 (with Coupons)

Sophie Anderson
Published on: September 27, 2020
10 Best Password Managers in 2020 (with Coupons)

Short on time? Here’s the best password manager for 2020:

After testing 47 different password managers, one thing was clear — a lot of password managers are pretty bad. Many aren’t even as good as Chrome’s built-in password manager — and only 10 were good enough to add to this list.

I was shocked that many big-name cybersecurity brands offered useless products — especially for the high cost — and even more shocked that many well-known review sites were still recommending them! But there are a few password managers which are cost effective, useful, and 100% secure.

I’ve tested all the password managers around the web for security, value, usability, and additional features to find the best password managers for 2020.

The 10 Best Password Managers of 2020:

How I Rated 2020‘s Best Password Managers:

  • Security. I analyzed the encryption settings that protect each password manager — 256-bit AES encryption is standard for this list. I also looked for unique features like two-factor authentication (2FA) and zero-knowledge protocols — this way, even the company behind my password manager won’t be able to access my information.
  • Features. Password managers include tons of different features, including file storage, web form filling, secure password sharing, a VPN, and even dark web monitoring — I’ve put all of these features to the test to figure out which ones are essential and which ones are just flashy add-ons.
  • Usability. All the features in the world are useless if the user interface is a cluttered mess — I dug deep into these password managers to see which ones are better for advanced users and which ones are ideal for non-tech-savvy people.
  • Customer Support. I ranked each company’s support systems in terms of helpfulness, response time, type of support, and available languages.
  • Value. I want a password manager that is a good value for the money, which is why my list only includes password managers that offer great features for a great price.

🥇1. Dashlane — Best All-Around Password Manager

🥇1. Dashlane — Best All-Around Password Manager

Dashlane has been at the top of my list of password managers for years, and it continues to outperform the competition in 2020. It’s super easy to use, highly secure, and offers a range of powerful features:

  • Two-factor authentication (2FA). Supports standard 2FA apps such as Authy, Google Authenticator, and FreeOTP, as well as biometric identification and USB authentication through YubiKey.
  • Dark Web Monitoring. Scans the dark web for logins, financial data, and ID info. If your identity has been breached, Dashlane will notify you immediately and recommend a solution.
  • VPN (Virtual Private Network). Dashlane’s included VPN is even better than some standalone VPNs. It unblocks geo-restricted streaming services without slowing down the internet connection, and their no-logs policy ensures that Dashlane can’t store my browsing data.

What sets Dashlane apart from its competitors is its Password Changer — this replaces hundreds of passwords with a single click. This incredibly helpful feature, which is surprisingly rare in the password manager world, saves a ton of time and is available to both Free and Premium users.

Dashlane Free is pretty good — it provides the Password Changer, secure note sharing, and even basic 2FA. But there’s a 50 password limit on the free plan, and it can only be used on one device, so it’s not the best choice for most people.

While Dashlane Premium is slightly more expensive than a few other competitors, you can take advantage of this exclusive 25% off SafetyDetectives promo code — enter SAFETYD25 at checkout. Also, all plans come with a 30-day money-back guarantee, so there’s no risk in trying it out.

Save 25% on Dashlane!

Enter the coupon code SAFETYD25 at checkout and take an additional 25% off Dashlane Premium and Premium Plus plans.

Bottom Line:

If you’re looking for an all-in-one password manager, you’ll probably love Dashlane. As we saw in our in-depth Dashlane review, it comes with many advanced features — such as Dark Web Monitoring and a VPN — but it doesn’t forget the basics, either. Dashlane’s intuitive interface, convenient Password Changer, and zero-knowledge protocol make this the best password manager on the market for most users in 2020.

Get Dashlane Now

🥈2. Keeper — Best High-Security Features

🥈2. Keeper — Best High-Security Features

Keeper is one of the most sophisticated password managers out there. It’s got everything an easy-to-use password manager needs, and it comes with powerful security and encryption features for people requiring extra protection.

I really like the Secure Audit feature — it ranks password strength and allows me to quickly generate new passwords. The biggest downside is that it doesn’t automatically change them like Dashlane.

Keeper has:

  • Advanced options for two-factor authentication. One option is the proprietary biometric authentication app, KeeperDNA, which allows logging in using a face or fingerprint on a mobile device or a smartwatch.
  • 10 GB of encrypted cloud storage. Cloud files can be shared with any Keeper user, and there’s an option to upgrade to 50 GB as well.
  • BreachWatch. Scans the dark web for hacked and leaked login information.
  • KeeperChat. A private, encrypted messaging app with message retraction, self-destruction, and a private media gallery.

Keeper’s Security Audit and encrypted messaging app, KeeperChat, make it one of the best available tools for password security and file sharing. Keeper also comes with more cloud storage than most of its competitors — 10 GB on the Families plan (or included in their Max Bundle), whereas Dashlane only includes 1 GB on its Premium plan.

For business users, Keeper’s intuitive Admin Console consolidates all users into one easy-to-use dashboard — the administrator can adjust 2FA settings, check password analytics, and delegate permissions so everybody on the team has the security they need.

And Keeper comes at a really good value (especially with this 30% off discount). The Family, Business, and Premium plans all offer great features at a cheaper cost than competitors like Dashlane and LastPass.

Save 30% on Keeper!

Take 30% off all Keeper Unlimited, Keeper Family, and Keeper Family Bundle plans right now.

Bottom Line:

Keeper is an in-depth password manager which comes with a wide range of security features, and the included encrypted chat app really enhances file-sharing security. It’s loaded with features — biometric 2FA, security breach scanning, password assessment, and 10 GB of storage — and at this price, it’s the password manager with the most security features for the best value.

Get Keeper Now

🥉3. LastPass — Best Free Plan

🥉3. LastPass — Best Free Plan

LastPass has the best free plan out of all the password managers that I tested. With LastPass Free, there are no limits on the number of passwords or the number of devices I can use.

Besides storing my passwords, LastPass Free comes with:

  • One-to-One Sharing. Shares encrypted passwords and information (but only with one user at a time).
  • Security Challenge. Checks my password security and points out old, weak, and compromised passwords.
  • Digital Wallet. Stores and automatically fills in credit card information, protecting me from keyloggers.
  • Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA). Syncs up with the built-in LastPass Authenticator and third-party apps like Google Authenticator and Microsoft Authenticator.
  • Secure Notes. Store confidential data in the cloud.

LastPass offers paid options for a variety of users — they’ve got a Premium plan, a Families plan, and 4 different plans for businesses. Paid users get sharing between multiple accounts, priority tech support, and 1 GB of secure data storage.

The paid plan also includes advanced MFA options — such as YubiKey, Sesame, and fingerprint authentication.

LastPass Premium Free Trial!

Claim your FREE 30-day trial of LastPass Premium now.

Bottom Line:

LastPass Free is the best free password manager available. It doesn’t restrict me to a single device or a specific number of passwords. Best of all, it comes with useful extras, such as the Security Challenge feature — which monitors my password strength — and the built-in 2FA system — LastPass Authenticator.

Get LastPass Now

4. RoboForm — Best for Advanced Form-Filling Capabilities

RoboForm — Best for Advanced Form-Filling Capabilities

RoboForm used to be a much simpler program, but now it’s one of my favorite full-suite password managers on the market. RoboForm’s password management is really impressive in terms of security:

  • 256-bit AES encryption.
  • Two-factor authentication (2FA).
  • Password generator (up to 512 characters).
  • Security Center analyzes password strength and suggests improvements.

But RoboForm really stands out with its form-filling capabilities — it offers far more customization than competitors like Keeper and LastPass. With RoboForm, you can create multiple “Identities” for web forms, with 8 different categories of information, including passport and credit card info — then you can securely share them with other RoboForm users.

RoboForm’s password generator uses a unique open-source protocol within its software to test password strength — “zxcvbn”. This protocol is continuously being updated by an open-source community of password security enthusiasts who are dedicated to staying up-to-date with the latest hacking trends.

RoboForm has a lot of great features, including a unique bookmark function that allows me to save and sync bookmarks from my desktop browser onto any device with RoboForm installed (like my mobile phone).

RoboForm’s interface is not as user friendly as Keeper’s or Dashlane’s, but it packs a lot of functionality into a modestly priced package. There are great deals for business licenses, and RoboForm Everywhere is one of the best value password managers for individual users.

Get RoboForm Free!

Get the most powerful form-filling tool on the internet for FREE.

Bottom Line:

RoboForm is an efficient, advanced password manager with the best form-filling capabilities on the market. It’s got tons of flexible pricing options for businesses and individual users, and it’s got a lot of customization options for families and businesses. It’s extremely secure, especially given the open-source “zxcvbn” protocol, and I love how well-integrated it is across all devices and operating systems. And with such a low cost and a 30-day money-back guarantee, it’s definitely worth trying.

Get RoboForm Now

5. RememBear — Best for New Password Manager Users

RememBear — Best for New Password Manager Users

RememBear is a secure and simple password manager with a super unique interface — it’s full of animated bears! While RememBear lacks some additional features of products like Dashlane and Keeper, it’s a great product for new password manager users who may be intimidated by more complex programs.

RememBear offers simple, bear-filled, step-by-step instructions to help users get started. It also uses a unique achievement system to help you learn the product — you “earn bears” by performing tasks like adding a credit card, importing existing logins, and crafting a secure Master Password.

I really appreciate how easy it is to sync passwords, credit cards, and notes across devices. Plus, the mobile app is compatible with iOS and Android’s biometric identification features, so you can log in with just your fingerprint.

As a backup, RememBear generates a unique New Device Key (NDK) which only you can see. The NDK can be used to log into RememBear if you lose your Master Password. This is much simpler than the complex “Emergency Access” features offered by competitors like RoboForm.

RememBear’s free version offers unlimited password storage, but only for a single device. It’s not a great deal — competitors like NordPass and LastPass offer unlimited storage on multiple devices in their free plans. However, RememBear Premium is one of the best value password managers on this list, with unlimited password storage on multiple devices for less money than 1Password or Dashlane.

RememBear Free Trial!

Get a 30-day FREE trial of RememBear Premium with every RememBear Free download.

Bottom Line:

RememBear is a great option for anybody looking for a simple, secure, and low-cost password manager — plus it’s got cute bears! As we saw in our full review, RememBear offers secure password storage and intuitive auto-filling along with credit card and note storage. It works well on both desktops and mobile devices, with biometric login for Android and iOS users. RememBear is available for a 30-day free trial, so it’s definitely worth a look, especially if you’re new to the world of password managers.

Get RememBear Now

6. 1Password — Best Password Security for Families

1Password — Best Password Security for Families

1Password has a really good Families plan, making it way more cost-effective than competing brands. I can share the Families subscription with up to 5 individuals and invite new members for a nominal fee. This is way better than the competition — Keeper and Dashlane both have a limit on how many users can share one subscription.

Each family member gets two password vaults — a Private vault and a Shared vault. Each Private vault belongs exclusively to that family member. The Shared vault is useful for storing passwords and notes — I use this feature with my family so that we can easily access the Wi-Fi password, the Netflix login, and the code for our home security system.

There’s also a Limit Sharing function — useful for parents who want their kids to have access to the login information but don’t want them to be able to change it.

1Password includes a lot of extra features for both individual and family users:

  • Watchtower. Notifies me if a password has been breached, assesses overall password strength, and generates new passwords.
  • Built-In 2FA. Generates a one-time password on my phone to log into my password vault.
  • Local Data Storage. Syncs my computer with my Android or iOS device over my local wireless network using a WLAN server.
  • Travel Mode. Hides sensitive information from my device when I travel and restores it when I return home.

1Password Free Trial!

Try any 1Password plan completely FREE for 30 days.

Bottom Line:

1Password has the best family plan in terms of price and secure data sharing — it makes sharing important data with my family super easy. The Watchtower feature sends alerts if any credentials have been breached, and the built-in 2FA adds another powerful layer of security to an already secure password manager. Plus, with a 30-day free trial, you can check it out and see if it’s right for you and your family.

Get 1Password Now

7. NordPass — Best User-Interface for Simple Password Management

NordPass — Best User-Interface for Simple Password Management

NordPass is probably the best password manager for non-tech-savvy people. Created by the NordVPN team, it’s designed to be both simple and effective, with a streamlined interface.

I had no trouble importing my passwords, generating new ones, and creating new logins using the NordPass browser extension. The built-in 2FA uses email, fingerprint, or USB drive along with a Master Password to ensure identity.

NordPass uses XChaCha20 encryption — the same algorithm that Google uses to guard their data — and zero-knowledge protocols, so not even the NordPass team can access my data.

Their free version only supports one device, but includes unlimited passwords. Upgrading gets unlimited password sharing and support for up to 6 devices.

NordPass Premium is going to have to add some functionality before they can climb higher on my list. Other competitors offer advanced features, including dark web monitoring, secure online shopping, a VPN, complex form-filling, and more — all for a comparable price.

But as we saw in our in-depth NordPass review, it’s a highly efficient password manager with an easy-to-use interface. With the NordVPN team behind it, I’m really excited to see how this password manager develops.

Save 50% on NordPass!

Get up to 50% off NordPass Premium now.

Bottom Line:

NordPass is a simple, effective password manager coming from cybersecurity giant NordVPN. The intuitive interface, strong encryption, and zero-knowledge policies all make NordPass one of the best password management experiences out there. That said, if you want a password manager with extra features, there are better choices, at around the same cost. But with a 30-day money-back guarantee, you can try out NordPass and see if you like it.

Get NordPass Now

8. Sticky Password — Best Premium Plan with Local Storage

Sticky Password — Best Premium Plan with Local Storage

Sticky Password comes with essential password management features, such as automatic form-filling, a secure digital wallet, and multi-factor authentication. I love the portable password manager feature — I was able to create a portable copy of the software so I could access my logins from any computer.

Sticky Password’s free plan doesn’t restrict how many passwords you can store, nor does it limit you to just one device — and that’s already better than Dashlane’s free plan!

But Sticky Password Premium is very good. As a Premium user, you get:

  • Local data storage. Sync your passwords via your local Wi-Fi connection instead of the cloud (for added security).
  • Secure cloud backup. Back up your system in the cloud, and quickly restore the data you’ve accidentally deleted or changed.
  • Secure password sharing. Customize permissions and share passwords with an unlimited number of users.
  • Priority customer support. Get access to 24/7 live chat support quickly.

Save 50% on Sticky Password!

Save 50% on Sticky Password Premium now.

Bottom Line:

Sticky Password is a full-featured password manager at a great value. It keeps your passwords safe, automatically fills in web forms, and securely stores credit card details. The local data storage is a major plus for people with a secure home network, and the portable password manager feature is really unique. The free plan is pretty good, and the paid version benefits Save the Manatee Club — a non-profit dedicated to manatee conservation — so it’s definitely a win-win (for you and the manatees)!

Get Sticky Password Now

9. Bitwarden — Best Open-Source Option for Individual Users

Bitwarden — Best Open-Source Option for Individual Users

Bitwarden is an open-source program, which means that every line of code in the program is freely available to the public, so there’s no way for the company to spy on user data. It also means that there’s a community of developers around the globe working to optimize the program’s performance — making it 1/3 of the price when compared to some competing brands.

Bitwarden Free ranks among the best free password managers, offering unlimited passwords with multi-device sync capabilities. The free version also saves notes, credit cards, and identities. LastPass and Sticky Password are the only other password managers with such a generous free plan.

Bitwarden Free includes two-factor authentication (2FA) through apps like Authy and Google Authenticator. I love the fact that I can store my own data offline — I have a secure server and I like keeping my private information off the cloud when I can.

Bitwarden also offers an online password vault. This useful feature makes it possible to access all of your passwords from any browser — I was able to access my Bitwarden vault and log into my Netflix on a friend’s computer.

With all of this functionality in the free version, Bitwarden Premium only adds a few important features, including:

  • Tools to assess password strength.
  • 1 GB encrypted storage — shareable with other Bitwarden users.
  • Built-in 2FA and USB compatibility with YubiKey and others.
  • Priority customer support.

While I like the password assessment tools, they don’t give the option to automatically strengthen and replace my passwords like Dashlane does.

Get Bitwarden Free!

Get the best open-source password manager for FREE.

Bottom Line:

Bitwarden is a high-quality password manager, and it’s the only open-source software on this list — it’s also one of the cheapest. There are lots of great features like zero-knowledge protocols, local data storage, built-in 2FA, and an online password vault. I’d like to see them include some more extra features and multiple user functionality, but at this price, it’s pretty good. You can give the free version a try, or download a 30-day free trial of one of Bitwarden’s premium plans.

Get Bitwarden Now

10. Enpass — Best Budget Password Manager w/ Offline Access

Enpass — Best Budget Password Manager w/ Offline Access

Enpass is the only password manager to offer a one-time purchase option — meaning one purchase gets you the product for life. It’s almost the same price as Dashlane’s yearly Premium membership, so it’s a great deal.

Enpass also offers a reasonable yearly subscription for those who don’t want to make the commitment, and their free version is alright, too — if you don’t mind a 25 password limit.

Enpass only offers local data storage. Most other password managers use dedicated servers to host your data so that your devices are all synced through the cloud. I prefer an approach like Bitwarden’s or Sticky Password’s where I can choose to host either locally or in the cloud. Still, if you know you can keep your information safe behind a strong cybersecurity defense system, local storage is the safest option.

For users that want to back up their data to the cloud, Enpass includes a “Cloud Sync” feature so you can sync your encrypted data to cloud storage apps like Google Drive.

Compared to other password managers, Enpass has limited features. However, it handles the basics — strong password creation, autofill, password audits, etc. — pretty well.

Besides that, Enpass’s more notable features include:

  • Wearable Support. Allows me to access my data from my smartwatch.
  • Enpass Portable. Gives me the option of installing Enpass on a USB storage device, so I can synchronize my data across multiple devices.
  • Biometric Support. Lets me log into Enpass using my fingerprint, eye, or face.
  • Built-in 2FA. Secures logins with a Time-based One-time password (TOTP) engine.

Bottom Line:

Enpass is ideal for those who don’t want to pay a recurring subscription fee. For a one-time payment, you gain access to Enpass for the rest of your life. It’s an effective (but minimal) password manager for individual users, however, it’s not the most user-friendly. And maybe most importantly, it doesn’t have an emergency access feature — if you forget your Master Password, you’ll have to uninstall the software and rebuild your whole password vault from scratch.

Get Enpass Now

Bonus. True Key — Best for High-Level Protection

Bonus. True Key — Best for High-Level Protection

True Key — owned by McAfee antivirus — offers the best multi-factor authentication (MFA) options I’ve ever seen from a password manager. While some products allow you to ignore 2FA or MFA, I had to verify my identity by two factors before I could access my password vault. And you can add more factors, too, making your account even more secure.

True Key supports the following authentication methods:

  • Master Password.
  • Email.
  • Second device.
  • Fingerprint.
  • Face.
  • Windows Hello.

The Facial Recognition feature has two levels of security. The Convenient setting verified my identity by taking a picture of my face. The Enhanced setting required me to move my face from side to side — with this option, a hacker wouldn’t be able to access my vault with a just photograph.

Initially, True Key asks for a Master Password, but I love the option for mobile users to go password-free. After entering my Master Password, I changed my settings to log in using Facial Recognition alone on my iPhone, and it worked perfectly every time!

True Key is a decent password manager. Passwords, credit cards, and notes can all be saved in the easy to use desktop app. True Key is definitely missing some of my favorite features, though — it doesn’t include password sharing between users, password auditing, form-filling, or password auto-filling.  

Bottom Line:

True Key’s MFA options are the best around — perfect for international travelers… or secret agents! I really like being able to sign in using my face — no need to worry about a Master Password. It’s pretty cheap, and if you’re familiar with McAfee products you will feel right at home with the user interface. That said, I need to see some more features before I move them up my list.

Get True Key Now

Bonus. Password Boss — Good Value w/ Many Extra Features

Bonus. Password Boss — Good Value w/ Many Extra Features

Password Boss has a ton of features — but my favorite is their Dark Web Scan — a feature not unique to Password Boss, but they do it well. It scanned the dark web for all of the logins in my vault and notified me that my data had been breached. I was surprised to see that my high school email account had been breached 8 times!

Password Boss also includes a Secure Browser feature — a built-in browser designed to keep online finances secure. The browser uses a secure DNS service to ensure credit cards don’t end up in the wrong hands. The Secure Browser also deletes cookies and temporary files to keep online shopping private.

Password Boss also includes:

  • Two-factor authentication.
  • Web form-filling.
  • Digital wallet.
  • Emergency access.
  • Cloud storage.
  • Password strength analysis.

With all of these extra features, it’s a shame that the customer support team isn’t more responsive. I had to wait for two days to get my questions answered via email. Still, this is one of the more affordable password managers which includes so many extra features.

Bottom Line:

Password Boss is packed with useful features: Dark Web Scan, built-in secure browser, form-filling, two-factor authentication, cloud storage, and a password analyzer. It’s a pretty good value, and you can try it out with their free trial. But it’s still missing a few things, like a responsive customer support system, so I can’t rank them higher right now.

Get Password Boss Now

Password Manager Built-in TOTP Generator Local Storage Option Encrypted Storage Free Plan Unique Features
1.🥇Dashlane Yes Yes 1 GB 1 device, 50 passwords VPN, one-click password changer, dark web monitoring
2.🥈Keeper Yes No 10 GB 1 device, unlimited passwords Encrypted messaging, secure storage, dark web monitoring
3.🥉LastPass Yes No 1 GB Unlimited devices, unlimited passwords Built-in 2FA, parental controls
4. RoboForm No Yes No 1 device, unlimited passwords Many form-filling templates, secure note sharing
5. RememBear Yes No No 1 device, unlimited passwords Intuitive interface, unique authentication feature
6. 1Password Yes Yes 1 GB No free plan Travel mode, parental controls
7. Sticky Password No Yes No Unlimited devices, unlimited passwords Cloud/local backup sync, portable USB option
8. NordPass No No No 1 device, unlimited passwords XChaCha20 encryption, streamlined interface
9. Bitwarden Yes Yes 1 GB Unlimited devices, unlimited passwords Open-source, built-in 2FA, affordable
10. Enpass No Yes No 1 device, 25 passwords Local-only data storage, one-time purchase option
11. True Key No No No 1 device, 15 passwords Digital wallet
12. Password Boss No No No No free plan Dark web monitoring

🤔️ Can my password manager get hacked?

It’s VERY unlikely. All of the password managers on this list use the incredibly strong 256-bit AES encryption method, or an equivalent encryption method, so a hacker would need an extraordinarily powerful supercomputer to steal your data. Even then, they’d still probably not be able to access your information.

However, if your Master Password is weak and can be easily guessed, then you’re defeating the whole purpose of a password manager. In that case, yes, your password manager can get “hacked”. But if you use a secure password generator and replace your Master Password every 6 months, this won’t happen.

🤔 Why should I use a password manager?

Password managers have a lot of benefits:

  • Password Generation — If you’re like me, you have almost 100 unique logins. Each one of those passwords should be unique, without similar keywords or patterns. A password manager coupled with a password generator can heighten cybersecurity in a few seconds — Dashlane even has an automatic Password Changer that replaces all of your weak passwords with one click.
  • Convenience — Having spent countless hours of my life forgetting, trying to remember, and having to reset my passwords, using a password manager is a real time saver.
  • Security — Password managers prevent keyloggers and screen loggers from watching you type your passwords on-screen. Most password managers also include secure data sharing between users. Some of them even monitor the dark web for security breaches, like Keeper’s BreachWatch feature and Dashlane’s Dark Web Monitoring.

🤔️ Are all password managers the same?

Many password managers offer similar features — saving and storing passwords, generating new passwords, multi-device syncing, two-factor authentication, etc. But, there are a lot of details that set them apart. Ease of use, encryption methods, multi-factor authentication options, and overall value can vary widely between different password managers.

RoboForm has the most advanced form-filling features around, while Keeper includes lots of secure storage, and Sticky Password gives a portion of all proceeds to the Save the Manatee Club!

🤔 Do password management companies track my information?

It depends. All of the best password managers, and most of the ones on this list, have a zero-knowledge protocol. This means that your information is encrypted before it’s stored on their servers — it’s literally impossible for them to read your passwords.

For users that just don’t trust cloud storage, many companies offer local data storage, so your passwords never leave your network — 1Password and Sticky Password are two brands which offer local password storage.

About the Author

Sophie Anderson
Sophie Anderson
Cybersecurity researcher and tech journalist

About the Author

Sophie Anderson has spent the last 10 years working as a software engineer for some of the biggest tech companies in Silicon Valley. She now works as a cybersecurity consultant and tech journalist, helping everyday netizens understand how to stay safe and protected in an online world.
Transparency and Trust – We pride ourselves on being the only site where users can freely contribute and share their reviews on any antivirus with other community members. When you visit an antivirus site we link to, we sometimes get affiliate commissions that support our work. Read more about how we operate.